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As long-term care insurance premiums go up, many policyholders are struggling with what to do. Accept higher premiums, reduce benefits, let the policy lapse or take a payout?
Long-term care insurance companies are restructuring and have been sending letters to policyholders about adjustments in coverage, increased premiums or paid-up options. Many policyholders are wondering how they should respond and what their options are.
Long-Term Care Insurance: To Buy or Not to Buy?
Increases don’t happen overnight, and insurance carriers have to consult with their state insurance department for approval, and the state is in control of that decision. Sometimes the state will agree to the increase but with conditions, such as telling the insurance company not to come back with a request for a certain period. Increases are made for a class of policyholders, such as groups with common attributes like application dates and type of policy, so the insurance company is not singling out policyholders that may be more at risk of using benefits.
Some policyholders are concerned that even if they keep paying premiums, there may be no benefits available when they are needed. But due to the aging population, several policyholders will naturally drop off, and insurance companies are hoping that some policyholders will let their policies lapse instead of agreeing to rate increases.
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Insurance companies are also finally getting some yield on reserves due to higher interest rates, so they should be able to cover future claims. Even if an insurance carrier fails, they tend to get bought out by another carrier to avoid the public losing confidence in the industry.
If the premiums are increased beyond affordability, some people will choose the payout (and lapse the policy), a paid-up option or reduced benefits. Some policyholders will not evaluate their options and cancel policies without consulting with an expert — this is good for the insurance companies, since they get the liability off the books.
Many insurance companies increase premiums over time, and you have no idea if or when this may happen. You might be paying $3,000 annually for a policy for 15 years, and the insurance company decides to raise your premium to $5,000. If you decide this is too costly after 15 years and cancel the policy, you have already paid $45,000 to the insurance company and have not used the benefit.
However, you should look at this like any other insurance product, such as homeowners — you are paying for peace of mind for a large risk, although the probability of a claim may be low.
The decision on whether to keep your long-term care insurance vs. self-insuring is a question many policyholders are now faced with. Whether to cancel the policy and lose what you have put in throughout the years, or pay the increased premiums and possibly have future increases, is a big financial decision. Some policyholders purchased policies when they were younger and accumulating assets and find as they are older, their nest egg has grown enough that they can sustain the costs without the insurance. You were insuring a risk that was there for a time.
Maintaining coverage can be very advantageous if you end up needing it and don’t want to spend down your assets to support the costs. If leaving a certain amount of assets to heirs or your spouse is important, even if you can self-insure you may still prefer to have the insurance company share some of the liability.
Is Hybrid Long-Term Care Insurance Right for You?
If you can afford to self-insure based on your long-term financial plan, then the choice boils down to whether you would like to retain the risk or share the risk with the insurance company and what amount of coverage to keep or adjust. The goal would be to take the worst-case scenario off the table, if possible.
A policyholder usually has the ability to adjust policy benefits down, but upping benefits may require new underwriting — you can always decrease coverage, but not increase. The insurance industry mispriced products in the past, so if you were to buy the same policy today (assuming the same age as when the original purchase occurred), it would be significantly more expensive.
Clients who cannot afford to self-insure because they do not have enough assets accumulated may be able to buy an LTC policy during their earlier years. As time progresses, there may be a point where their assets can support a long-term care event — and at this point, they can terminate their policy or modify it for less coverage.
Even if you modify coverage, this does not mean there will be no future increases. Keep in mind when a single person goes into LTC, their expenses may move laterally (you will probably sell your house and car and no longer travel, for example), but with a couple, if one goes into care and the other doesn’t, the other spouse still has their usual living expenses, so the couple is faced with increased costs.
Insurance companies usually send a few alternatives along with the notice of a premium increase, but if you are not happy with the options, you can ask for options based on what you can afford to, or want to, pay. The options you initially receive are usually skewed toward benefiting the insurance company and often look enticing to an inexperienced policyholder.
It is advisable to check with a licensed insurance professional before making a decision, as decreasing coverage or going along with a paid-up option may remove inflation adjustments, riders or increase waiting periods. Instead of having a 90-day elimination period (when you have to cover the costs before the policy kicks in), you may end up with 180 days.
If you are considering this decision as a purely financial one, the place to start would be to find the break-even cost of an event and how much you would have paid in premiums by that claim age. You would want to see the break-even of total premiums paid vs. the benefit pool available on the claim — if you end up using the benefits, you will usually be better off. You will also want to factor in inflation and the growth rate on the funds had you invested them otherwise until the age you go on claim.
You would also want to calculate what you would have saved on premiums in a side bucket at whatever age you are modeling to go on claim — what are you saving vs. losing in benefits?
Insurance companies also offer hybrid long-term care products, such as LTC with a life insurance death benefit or annuity attachment, so it is important to determine what risk you would like to cover. Note that with these hybrid policies, going on claim could substantially reduce the death benefit.
LTC insurance can turn into a less-than-ideal investment at some point. The decision to buy is very individualized, and if you happen to use it early, such as in the first five to 10 years, it can be a good investment, because you have paid less in premiums upfront and are using the benefits.
A Woman’s Guide to Long-Term Care
However, the longer you take to use the benefits, the more sense it may make to just put money aside yourself if you can afford to self-insure. Of course, there is no way of knowing if and when an event will happen.
Note: We are not licensed insurance agents and cannot give insurance advice but can help you through the process of deciding what is best for you and provide a broad overview of the advantages and disadvantages. Please discuss this with your agent before purchasing or making any changes to your existing policies.
This article was written by and presents the views of our contributing adviser, not the Kiplinger editorial staff. You can check adviser records with the SEC (opens in new tab) or with FINRA (opens in new tab).
Roxanne Alexander is a senior financial adviser with Evensky & Katz/Foldes Financial handling client analysis on investments, insurance, annuities, college planning and developing investment policies. Prior to this, she was a senior vice president at Evensky & Katz working with both individual and institutional clients. She has a bachelor’s in accounting and business management from the University of the West Indies, she received an MBA at the University of Miami in finance and investments.
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